Wearable Electrochemical Sensors in Parkinson's Disease

Francesco Asci, Giorgio Vivacqua, Alessandro Zampogna, Valentina D'Onofrio, Adolfo Mazzeo, Antonio Suppa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with widespread aggregation of α-synuclein and dopaminergic neuronal loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta. As a result, striatal dopaminergic denervation leads to functional changes in the cortico-basal-ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop, which in turn cause most of the parkinsonian signs and symptoms. Despite tremendous advances in the field in the last two decades, the overall management (i.e., diagnosis and follow-up) of patients with PD remains largely based on clinical procedures. Accordingly, a relevant advance in the field would require the development of innovative biomarkers for PD. Recently, the development of miniaturized electrochemical sensors has opened new opportunities in the clinical management of PD thanks to wearable devices able to detect specific biological molecules from various body fluids. We here first summarize the main wearable electrochemical technologies currently available and their possible use as medical devices. Then, we critically discuss the possible strengths and weaknesses of wearable electrochemical devices in the management of chronic diseases including PD. Finally, we speculate about possible future applications of wearable electrochemical sensors in PD, such as the attractive opportunity for personalized closed-loop therapeutic approaches.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)951
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jan 26 2022


  • Biomarkers
  • Corpus Striatum
  • Dopamine
  • Humans
  • Parkinson Disease/diagnosis
  • Wearable Electronic Devices


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