Vernal keratoconjunctivitis: An update

Daniele Giovanni Ghiglioni, Anna Maria Zicari, Giuseppe Fabio Parisi, Giuseppe Marchese, Cristiana Indolfi, Lucia Diaferio, Giulia Brindisi, Giorgio Ciprandi, Gian Luigi Marseglia, Michele Miraglia del Giudice

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) and atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) are potentially severe and complex disease in its management among the various allergic eye diseases. In this regard, studies clarified the etiopathogenetic mechanisms. The workup should be multidisciplinary. The treatment includes topical and systemic medications with anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant activity. However, a definition of nationally- and internationally-shared diagnostic protocols would also be needed and validated access to therapeutic options of proven safety and efficacy to avoid the use of galenic preparations, up to now still essential in the management of moderate-severe VKC. Finally, recognizing VKC and AKC, among rare diseases, at a national and international level would be an essential step to allow the management of VKC with adequate timings and settings within the National Health System.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Journal of Ophthalmology
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2021


  • adolescents
  • atopic keratoconjunctivitis
  • children
  • ocular allergy
  • Vernal keratoconjunctivitis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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