Triggering sleep slow waves by transcranial magnetic stimulation

Marcello Massimini, Fabio Ferrarelli, Steve K. Esser, Brady A. Riedner, Reto Huber, Michael Murphy, Michael J. Peterson, Giulio Tononi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


During much of sleep, cortical neurons undergo near-synchronous slow oscillation cycles in membrane potential, which give rise to the largest spontaneous waves observed in the normal electroencephalogram (EEG). Slow oscillations underlie characteristic features of the sleep EEG, such as slow waves and spindles. Here we show that, in sleeping subjects, slow waves and spindles can be triggered noninvasively and reliably by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). With appropriate stimulation parameters, each TMS pulse at

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8496-8501
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number20
Publication statusPublished - May 15 2007


  • Bistability
  • Consciousness
  • Electroencephalogram
  • Perturbation
  • Slow oscillation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General
  • Genetics


Dive into the research topics of 'Triggering sleep slow waves by transcranial magnetic stimulation'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this