Thrombo-hemorrhagic deaths in acute promyelocytic leukemia

Massimo Breccia, Francesco Lo Coco

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has become the most curable form of acute myeloid leukemia after the advent of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). However, early deaths (ED) mostly due to the disease-associated coagulopathy remain the major cause of treatment failure. In particular, hemorrhagic events account for 40-65% of ED and several prognostic factors have been identified for such hemorrhagic deaths, including poor performance status, high white blood cell (WBC) count and coagulopathy. Occurrence of thrombosis during treatment with ATRA may be associated with differentiation syndrome (DS) or represent an isolated event. Some prognostic factors have been reported to be associated with thrombosis, including increased WBC or aberrant immunophenotype of leukemic promyelocytes. Aim of this review is to report the incidence, severity, possible pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of thrombo-haemorrhagic deaths in APL.

Original languageEnglish
JournalThrombosis Research
Issue numberSUPPL. 2
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • Acute promyelocytic leukemia
  • Coagulopathy
  • Early death
  • Hemorrhagic death

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Medicine(all)


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