The use of prolonged peripheral neural blockade after lower extremity amputation: The effect on symptoms associated with phantom limb syndrome

Battista Borghi, Marco D'Addabbo, Paul F. White, Pina Gallerani, Letizia Toccaceli, William Raffaeli, Andrea Tognù, Nicola Fabbri, Mario Mercuri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


BACKGROUND: Phantom limb syndrome (PLS) is common after limb amputations, involving up to 90% of amputees. Although many different therapies have been evaluated, none has been found to be highly effective. Therefore, we evaluated the efficacy of a prolonged perineural infusion of a high concentration of local anesthetic solution in preventing PLS. METHODS: A perineural catheter was placed immediately before or during surgery in 71 patients undergoing lower extremity amputation. A continuous infusion of 0.5% ropivacaine was started intraoperatively at 5 mL/h using an elastomeric (nonelectronic) pump, and continued for 4 to 83 days after surgery. PLS was evaluated on the first postoperative day and then 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks, and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after surgery. To evaluate the presence and severity of PLS while the patient was receiving the ropivacaine infusion, it was discontinued for 6 to 12 hours before each assessment period (i.e., until the sensation in the extremity returned). The severity of phantom limb and stump pain was assessed using a 5-point verbal rating scale (VRS), with 0 ≤ no pain to 4 ≤ intolerable pain, and "phantomg" sensations were recorded as present or absent. If the VRS score was >1 or significant phantom sensations were present, the ropivacaine infusion was immediately restarted at 5 mL/h. If the VRS score remained at 0 to 1 and the patient had not experienced phantom sensations for 48 hours, the infusion was permanently discontinued and the catheter was removed. RESULTS: Median duration of the local anesthetic infusion was 30 days (95% confidence interval, 25-30 days). On postoperative day 1, 73% of the patients complained of severe-to-intolerable pain (visual analog scale >2). However, the incidence of severe-to-intolerable phantom limb pain was only 3% at the end of the 12-month evaluation period. At the end of the 12-month period, the percentage of patients with VRS pain scores were 0 ≤ 84%, 1 ≤ 10%, 2 ≤ 3%, 3 ≤ 3%, and 4 ≤ none. However, phantom limb sensations were present in 39% of patients at the end of the 12-month evaluation period. All patients were able to manage the elastomeric catheter infusion system at home. CONCLUSION: Use of a prolonged postoperative perineural infusion of ropivacaine 0.5% seems to be an effective therapy for the treatment of phantom limb pain and sensations after lower extremity amputation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1308-1315
Number of pages8
JournalAnesthesia and Analgesia
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2010

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine


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