The Modified Five-Point Test (MFPT): normative data for a sample of Italian elderly

Petronilla Battista, Chiara Griseta, Rosanna Tortelli, Pietro Guida, Fabio Castellana, Davide Rivolta, Giancarlo Logroscino

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: Non-verbal figural fluency is related to executive functions and specifically to the ability to create as many unique designs as possible, while minimizing their repetitions. An Italian version of figural fluency is the Modified Five-Point Test (MFPT), which is highly employed in the clinical practice of neuropsychologists. To date, reference data of Italian population are limited to a sample aged between 16 and 60 years old. Thus, the current study aims to provide normative data of the MFPT in the context of a population-based setting, conducted in Southern Italy. Material and methods: We collected N = 340 Italian healthy subjects, aged over 65 years old (range: 65–91), pooled across subgroups for age, sex, and education. Multiple regression analyses were performed to estimate the effect of age, education, and sex on the participant’s performance. Equivalent scores and cut-off scores were also defined for the number of unique designs (UDs) and the number of strategies (CSs). Results: Multiple regression analyses revealed that UDs increase with decreasing age and increasing educational level. CSs are influenced by higher educational levels but neither by age nor sex. A significant inverse correlation between the UDs and percentage of errors occurred, suggesting that a higher number of UDs are associated with a fewer number of errors and higher CSs employed. Conclusion: The MFPT provides a measure of cognitive functioning in terms of the ability to initiate and realize designs, affording useful hints for clinical settings. The MFPT may represent a handy and useful tool with a specific focus in the differentiation of healthy versus pathological aging.

Original languageEnglish
JournalNeurological Sciences
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2020


  • Design fluency
  • Executive functions
  • Figural fluency
  • Modified Five-Point Test
  • Normative data
  • Prefrontal cortex

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dermatology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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