The Long-Term Benefit of Liver Transplantation for Hepatic Metastases From Neuroendocrine Tumors

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Selection criteria and benefit of liver transplantation for hepatic metastases from neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) remain uncertain. Eighty-eight consecutive patients with metastatic NETs eligible for liver transplantation according to Milan-NET criteria were offered transplant (n = 42) versus nontransplant options (n = 46) depending on list dynamics, patient disposition, and age. Tumor burden between groups did not differ. Transplant patients were younger (40.5 vs. 55.5 years; p <0.001). Long-term outcomes were compared after matching between groups made on multiple Cox models adjusted for propensity score built on logistic models. Survival benefit was the difference in mean survival between transplant versus nontransplant options. No patients were lost or died without recurrence. Median follow-up was 122 months. The transplant group showed a significant advantage over nontransplant strategies at 5 and 10 years in survival (97.2% and 88.8% vs. 50.9% and 22.4%, respectively; p <0.001) and time-to-progression (13.1% and 13.1% vs. 83.5% and 89%; p <0.001). After adjustment for propensity score, survival advantage of the transplant group was significant (hazard ratio = 7.4; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.4-23.0; p = 0.001). Adjusted transplant-related survival benefit was 6.82 months (95% CI: 1.10-12.54; p = 0.019) and 38.43 months (95% CI: 21.41-55.45; p <0.001) at 5 and 10 years, respectively. Liver transplantation for metastatic NETs under restrictive criteria provides excellent long-term outcome. Transplant-related survival benefit increases over time and maximizes after 10 years.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2892-2902
Number of pages11
JournalAmerican Journal of Transplantation
Issue number10
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2016


  • Cancer/malignancy/neoplasia
  • Cancer/malignancy/neoplasia: metastatic disease
  • Clinical research/practice
  • Liver disease: malignant
  • Liver transplantation/hepatology
  • Recipient selection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Transplantation
  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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