The intestinal microbiota modulates the anticancer immune effects of cyclophosphamide

Sophie Viaud, Fabiana Saccheri, Grégoire Mignot, Takahiro Yamazaki, Romain Daillère, Dalil Hannani, David P. Enot, Christina Pfirschke, Camilla Engblom, Mikael J. Pittet, Andreas Schlitzer, Florent Ginhoux, Lionel Apetoh, Elisabeth Chachaty, Paul Louis Woerther, Gérard Eberl, Marion Bérard, Chantal Ecobichon, Dominique Clermont, Chantal BizetValérie Gaboriau-Routhiau, Nadine Cerf-Bensussan, Paule Opolon, Nadia Yessaad, Eric Vivier, Bernhard Ryffel, Charles O. Elson, Joël Doré, Guido Kroemer, Patricia Lepage, Ivo Gomperts Boneca, François Ghiringhelli, Laurence Zitvogel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Cyclophosphamide is one of several clinically important cancer drugs whose therapeutic efficacy is due in part to their ability to stimulate antitumor immune responses. Studying mouse models, we demonstrate that cyclophosphamide alters the composition of microbiota in the small intestine and induces the translocation of selected species of Gram-positive bacteria into secondary lymphoid organs. There, these bacteria stimulate the generation of a specific subset of "pathogenic" T helper 17 (pTH17) cells and memory TH1 immune responses. Tumor-bearing mice that were germ-free or that had been treated with antibiotics to kill Gram-positive bacteria showed a reduction in pTH17 responses, and their tumors were resistant to cyclophosphamide. Adoptive transfer of pTH17 cells partially restored the antitumor efficacy of cyclophosphamide. These results suggest that the gut microbiota help shape the anticancer immune response.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)971-976
Number of pages6
Issue number6161
Publication statusPublished - 2013

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General
  • History and Philosophy of Science
  • Medicine(all)


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