The emerging role of type 2 inflammation in asthma

Matucci Andrea, Bormioli Susanna, Nencini Francesca, Maggi Enrico, Vultaggio Alessandra

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Introduction: Bronchial asthma (BA) is a chronic airways inflammatory disease. Based on the biological mechanisms that underline the disease, asthma has been classified as type 2 or non-type 2 phenotype.Areas covered: An emerging role has been identified for group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) able to produce the classical type 2 cytokines. The role of Th2 cells and IL-4 is crucial in the pathogenesis of allergic BA as supported by asthma models. IL-13, shares many biological functions with IL-4 such as induction of IgE synthesis and regulation of eosinophil trafficking. However, IL-13 does not induce Th2 cell differentiation. The Authors reviewed evidence on the new concept of type 2 inflammation and the cellular and molecular network behind this process. Literature data in the PubMed were analyzed for peer-reviewed articles published until September 2020.Expert opinion: The current trend is to consider Th2- and ILC2-driven pathways as two separate pathogenic mechanisms, recent data underscore that adaptive Th2- and innate cell responses represent two integrated systems in the production of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 leading to the current 'concept' of type 2 inflammation. This review highlights the role of Th2 cells and ILC2 in the recent new concept of type 2 inflammation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)63-71
Number of pages9
JournalExpert Review of Clinical Immunology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Animals
  • Asthma/complications
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate
  • Inflammation/classification
  • Interleukin-13/immunology
  • Interleukin-4/immunology
  • Th2 Cells/cytology


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