Stenotic Breast Malformation and Its Reconstructive Surgical Correction: A New Concept From Minor Deformity to Tuberous Breast

Marco Klinger, Francesco Klinger, Silvia Giannasi, Alessandra Veronesi, Valeria Bandi, Barbara Banzatti, Barbara Catania, Valeriano Vinci, Andrea Lisa, Guido Cornegliani, Micol Giaccone, Fabio Caviggioli, Luca Maione

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Several classification systems have been reported to define the spectrum of tuberous breast deformity, and a range of surgical techniques has been described. In this paper, we proposed a new classification including tuberous breast and minor deformity based on stenosis type, glandular trophism and ptosis adapting surgical planning to different breast types. Methods: A total of 246 patients meeting our definition for stenotic breasts asking for surgery were analyzed in this study. We considered eight different types of stenotic breasts analyzing anatomical presentations, and we then proposed eight key-point maneuvers, finalized to the correction of different breast deformities and their possible association according to the stenotic breast type. Results have been evaluated by a group of three surgeons and by patients. In addition, we evaluated the complication incidence in terms of re-intervention rate. Results: Following our classification eight different groups were distinguished. For each one we reported the prevalence and the surgical procedure adopted. Results evaluated by the surgeon group reported a mean aesthetic outcome of 8.2 (range 5–10), whereas patients reported a mean value of 7.9 (range 6–10). During a follow-up period with a mean of 16 months we observed a 4.9% re-intervention rate. Conclusions: We believe this new classification to be very complete in evaluating breast shape, including most of the breast evaluable features. Our results confirmed the suitability of the approach for appropriate preoperative planning, thus improving the global surgical outcome. Level of Evidence V: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1068-1077
Number of pages10
JournalAesthetic Plastic Surgery
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Oct 1 2017


  • Breast
  • Classification
  • Stenotic
  • Surgery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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