Startles, twitches and clonuses

Luisa Bocconi, Chiara Boschetto, Florinda Ceriani, Alessandra Kustermann

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


In everyday language the term' startle' suggests a behavioural and emotional reaction of surprise, shock and fear to a sudden, unexpected event. Startles are also considered as a motor response to noxious and painful stimuli aimed at withdrawing from a threat [1]. However, the word 'startle' is not solely linked with fear and pain, as one can also be pleasantly startled by an unexpected but agreeable experience.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationDevelopment of Normal Fetal Movements: The First 25 Weeks of Gestation
PublisherSpringer Milan
Number of pages10
ISBN (Print)9788847014015
Publication statusPublished - 2010


  • Central pattern generator
  • Clonuses
  • Clusters
  • Crown-rump length
  • Dreaming
  • Epilepsy
  • Hiccups
  • Hyperexplexia
  • Moro reflex
  • REM sleep
  • Startles
  • Twitches

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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