Slow cortical potential biofeedback and the startle reflex

Stuart Brody, Harald Rau, Fabiola Köhler, Harald Schupp, Werner Lutzenberger, Niels Birbaumer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The negativity of slow cortical potentials (SCP) of the surface EEG is a measure of brain excitability, correlating with motor and cognitive preparation. Selfcontrol of SCP positivity has been shown to reduce seizure activity. Following SCP biofeedback from a central EEG electrode position, subjects gained bidirectional control over their SCP. The current study used a modified feedback methodology, and found a positive relationship between negativity and magnitude of EMG startle response (a measure of cortical and subcortical arousal, particularly aversive response disposition). Greater success in SCP differentiation was associated with self-report of less relaxation during negativity training.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalBiofeedback and Self-Regulation
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Mar 1994


  • biofeedback
  • slow cortical potentials
  • startle probe
  • threshold regulation of EEG

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)


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