Skeletal Survey in Multiple Myeloma: Role of Imaging

Paolo Spinnato, Giacomo Filonzi, Alberto Conficoni, Giancarlo Facchini, Federico Ponti, Andrea Sambri, Massimiliano De Paolis, Michele Cavo, Eugenio Salizzoni, Cristina Nanni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Bone disease is the hallmark of multiple myeloma. Skeletal lesions are evaluated to establish the diagnosis, to choose the therapies and also to assess the response to treatments. Due to this, imaging procedures play a key-role in the management of multiple myeloma. For decades, conventional radiography has been the standard imaging modality. Subsequently, advances in the treatment of multiple myeloma have increased the need for accurate evaluation of skeletal disease. The introduction of new high performant imaging tools, such as whole-body low dose computed tomography, different types of magnetic resonance imaging studies, and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, replaced conventional radiography. In this review we analyze the diagnostic potentials, indications of use, and applications of the imaging tools nowadays available. Whole body low-dose CT should be considered as the imaging modality of choice for the initial assessment of multiple myeloma lytic bone lesions. MRI is the gold-standard for detection of bone marrow involvement, while PET/CT is the preferred technique in assessment of response to therapy. Both MRI and PET/CT are able to provide prognostic information.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)956-965
Number of pages10
JournalCurrent Hypertension Reviews
Issue number8
Early online dateJan 26 2021
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Bone Neoplasm
  • Hematologic Neoplasms
  • Image-Guided Biopsy
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Multidetector Computed Tomography
  • Multiple Myeloma
  • Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography


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