SAR prediction in adults and children by combining measured B1+ maps and simulations at 7.0 Tesla

Gianluigi Tiberi, Mauro Costagli, Laura Biagi, Alessio De Ciantis, Nunzia Fontana, Riccardo Stara, Mark Roger Symms, Mirco Cosottini, Renzo Guerrini, Michela Tosetti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: To predict local and global specific absorption rate (SAR) in individual subjects. Materials and Methods: SAR was simulated for a head volume coil for two imaging sequences: axial T1-weighted “zero” time-of-echo (ZTE) sequence, sagittal T2-weighted fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR). Two head models (one adult, one child) were simulated inside the coil. For 19 adults and 27 children, measured B1 + maps were acquired, and global (head) SAR estimated by the system was recorded. We performed t-test between the B1 + in models and human subjects. The B1 + maps of individual subjects were used to scale the SAR simulated on the models, to predict local and global (head) SAR. A phantom experiment was performed to validate SAR prediction, using a fiberoptic temperature probe to measure the temperature rise due to ZTE scanning. Results: The normalized B1 + standard deviation in subjects was not significantly different from that of the models (P > 0.68 and P > 0.54). The rise in temperature generated in the phantom by ZTE was 0.3°C; from the heat equation it followed that the temperature-based measured SAR was 2.74 W/kg, while the predicted value was 3.1 W/kg. Conclusion: For ZTE and FLAIR, limits on maximum local and global SAR were met in all subjects, both adults and children. To enhance safety in adults and children with 7.0 Tesla MR systems, we suggest the possibility of using SAR prediction. J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2016;44:1048–1055.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1048-1055
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Oct 1 2016


  • B1 mapping
  • RF full-wave simulations
  • safety
  • SAR
  • ultrahigh field magnetic resonance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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