Role of macronutrients, vitamins and minerals in tile aetiology of squamous-cell carcinoma of the oesophagus

Silvia Franceschi, Ettore Bidoli, Eva Negri, Paola Zambon, Renato Talamini, Alberto Ruol, Maria Parpinel, Fabio Levi, Lorenzo Simonato, Carlo La Vecchia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Between 1992 and 1997 we conducted a case-control study of oesophageal cancer in 3 areas of northern Italy. Cases were 304 patients (29 women), ages 39-77 years (median age 60 years), with a first incident squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oesophagus. Controls were 743 patients (150 women), ages 35-77 years (median age 60 years), admitted for acute illnesses, unrelated to tobacco and alcohol, to major hospitals of the areas under surveillance. We derived estimates of daily dietary intake of 15 macronutrients, cholesterol, and 20 micronutrients or minerals from a validated food-frequency questionnaire, including 78 food groups and recipes and 15 questions on individual eating patterns. After allowance for age, gender, area of residence, education, body mass index, physical activity, smoking habit, alcohol consumption and energy intake, most micronutrients were inversely associated with oesophageal SCC risk. Highly significant associations emerged for monounsaturated fatty acids [odds ratio (OR) in highest vs. lowest intake quintile = 0.5]; carotene (OR = 0.3); lutein + zeaxanthin (OR = 0.4); vitamin C (OR = 0.4); and niacin (OR = 0.5). Only retinol appeared to be positively related to risk (OR = 1.9). The effect of the above nutrients, expressed as ORs, appeared to be similar in non-smokers and smokers, and non/light drinkers and heavy drinkers. (C) 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)626-631
Number of pages6
JournalInternational Journal of Cancer
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2000

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Oncology


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