Review of methods for detecting glycemic disorders: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice

M. Bergman, M. Abdul-Ghani, R.A. DeFronzo, M. Manco, G. Sesti, T.V. Fiorentino, A. Ceriello, M. Rhee, L.S. Phillips, S. Chung, C. Cravalho, R. Jagannathan, L. Monnier, C. Colette, D. Owens, C. Bianchi, S. del Prato, M.P. Monteiro, J.S. Neves, J.L. MedinaM.P. Macedo, R.T. Ribeiro, J. Filipe Raposo, B. Dorcely, N. Ibrahim, M. Buysschaert

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Prediabetes (intermediate hyperglycemia) consists of two abnormalities, impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) detected by a standardized 75-gram oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Individuals with isolated IGT or combined IFG and IGT have increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Diagnosing prediabetes early and accurately is critical in order to refer high-risk individuals for intensive lifestyle modification. However, there is currently no international consensus for diagnosing prediabetes with HbA1c or glucose measurements based upon American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria that identify different populations at risk for progressing to diabetes. Various caveats affecting the accuracy of interpreting the HbA1c including genetics complicate this further. This review describes established methods for detecting glucose disorders based upon glucose and HbA1c parameters as well as novel approaches including the 1-hour plasma glucose (1-h PG), glucose challenge test (GCT), shape of the glucose curve, genetics, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), measures of insulin secretion and sensitivity, metabolomics, and ancillary tools such as fructosamine, glycated albumin (GA), 1,5- anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG). Of the approaches considered, the 1-h PG has considerable potential as a biomarker for detecting glucose disorders if confirmed by additional data including health economic analysis. Whether the 1-h OGTT is superior to genetics and omics in providing greater precision for individualized treatment requires further investigation. These methods will need to demonstrate substantially superiority to simpler tools for detecting glucose disorders to justify their cost and complexity. © 2020
Original languageEnglish
JournalDiabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Biomarkers
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Continuous glucose monitoring
  • Glycemic variability
  • HbA1c
  • Metabolomics
  • Oral glucose tolerance test
  • Prediabetes
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • 1,5 anhydrosorbitol
  • fructosamine
  • glycosylated albumin
  • hemoglobin A1c
  • biological marker
  • glycosylated hemoglobin
  • glycosylated serum albumin
  • serum albumin
  • cardiovascular disease
  • diagnostic accuracy
  • disease exacerbation
  • early diagnosis
  • fasting
  • genetic screening
  • glucose tolerance test
  • health care cost
  • human
  • hyperglycemia
  • impaired glucose tolerance
  • insulin release
  • insulin sensitivity
  • metabolomics
  • non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
  • pancreas islet beta cell
  • reproducibility
  • Review
  • adolescent
  • adult
  • aged
  • blood
  • blood glucose monitoring
  • child
  • disorders of carbohydrate metabolism
  • female
  • glucose blood level
  • glucose intolerance
  • longitudinal study
  • male
  • middle aged
  • very elderly
  • young adult
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Blood Glucose
  • Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring
  • Cardiovascular Diseases
  • Child
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
  • Female
  • Fructosamine
  • Glucose Intolerance
  • Glucose Metabolism Disorders
  • Glucose Tolerance Test
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Humans
  • Hyperglycemia
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prediabetic State
  • Serum Albumin
  • Young Adult


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