Regression-based normative data and equivalent scores for Trail Making Test (TMT): an updated Italian normative study

Mattia Siciliano, Carlo Chiorri, Valeria Battini, Valeria Sant'Elia, Manuela Altieri, Luigi Trojano, Gabriella Santangelo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


OBJECTIVES: The Trail Making Test (TMT) is widely used to assess psychomotor speed and attentional set-shifting. Since the regression-based norms and equivalent scores (ESs) for the TMT Italian version trace back to more than 20 years ago, we aimed at providing updated normative data for basic (Part A and Part B) and derived (Score B-A and Score B/A) TMT scores collected in a larger sample with an extended age range.

METHODS: Three hundred fifty-five Italian volunteers stratified for sex (166 men), age decades (age range 20-90 years), and educational level (from primary school to university) completed the TMT and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA).

RESULTS: Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that age and educational level significantly influenced performances on basic and derived TMT scores except for B/A, which was associated only with the educational level. From the derived linear equations, correction grids for basic and derived TMT raw scores were developed. Inferential cutoff scores, estimated using a non-parametric technique, and ES were computed. Basic and derived TMT scores showed a good test-retest reliability (all rs ≥ 0.50); Part B (rs = - 0.48, p < 0.001) and Score B-A (rs = - 0.49, p < 0.001) were moderately associated with MoCA total score.

CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the association of basic and derived TMT raw scores with sociodemographic variables and provides updated correction grids and ES for assessing the attentional/executive functions in clinical and research fields.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)469-477
Number of pages9
JournalNeurol. Sci.
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2019


  • Adult
  • Age Distribution
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Dementia/diagnosis
  • Educational Status
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Italy
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Reference Values
  • Regression Analysis
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Sex Factors
  • Trail Making Test/standards
  • Young Adult


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