Radiological assessment of anal cancer: an overview and update

Vincenza Granata, Roberta Fusco, Alfonso Reginelli, Luca Roberto, Francesco Granata, Daniela Rega, Antonio Rotondo, Roberto Grassi, Francesco Izzo, Antonella Petrillo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Anal cancer is uncommon neoplasm with an incidence of 2 new cases per 100,000 per year in the USA, accounting approximately 0.4 % of all tumors and 2.5 % of gastrointestinal malignancies. An early detection of the anal cancer is crucial for the patient management, whereas the diagnosis at an early stage allows conservative management with sphincter sparing, on the contrary a delays in diagnosis might lead to an advance cancer stage at presentation with worst survival. According to National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Anal Carcinoma guidelines the patients should be subjected to a careful clinical examination, including a digital rectal examination (DRE), an anoscopic examination, and palpation of inguinal nodes. The guidelines recommended for the assessment of T stage, only a clinical examination, while the role of imaging techniques, as Magnetic Resonance imaging (MRI) is limited to the identification of regional nodes. Instead, the endoanal ultrasound (EAUS) is not recommended. This paper presents an overview and some updates about 3D EAUS and MRI in detection, staging and assessment post therapy of anal cancer patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
JournalInfectious Agents and Cancer
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Oct 12 2016


  • 3D Endo anal Ultrasound
  • Anal Cancer
  • Detection Cancer
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Post-treatment Imaging Assessment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research
  • Infectious Diseases


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