Radiation Doses to Operators in Hepatobiliary Interventional Procedures

Sarah Degiorgio, Roberta Gerasia, Ferdinanda Liotta, Luigi Maruzzelli, Kelvin Cortis, Roberto Miraglia, Angelo Luca

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: The primary aim of this study is to provide a summary of operators’ radiation doses during hepatobiliary fluoroscopic guided procedures. In addition, patient dose in these procedures was also documented. Materials and Methods: A total of 283 transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE) and 302 biliary procedures, including 52 percutaneous transhepatic cholangiogram (PTC), 36 bilioplasty and 214 biliary catheter changes (BCC) performed over 14 months, were included. Electronic personal dosimeters were used to measure operator radiation doses. Effective dose (E) was calculated using modified Niklason algorithm. Patient dose was measured as dose area product (DAP) and fluoroscopy time (FT). Results: For TACE, E for radiologist ranged between 0 and 9.96 µSv, for radiographer 0–0.99 µSv and for nurse 0–4.65 µSv. The patient DAP and FT ranged between 1.5 and 421.9 Gy cm2 and 1.91–67.25 min. For PTC, E for the radiologist ranged between 0.33 and 55.89 µSv, for radiographer 0–38.61 µSv and for nurse 0–3.18 µSv. Patient DAP and FT ranged between 1.7 and 218.4 Gy cm2 and 2.07–71.53 min. For bilioplasty, E ranged between 0.09 and 9.24 µSv for radiologist, 0–0.84 µSv for radiographer and 0–1.38 µSv for nurse. The patients’ DAP and FT ranged from 0.7 to 52.54 Gy cm2 and 1.13–24.47 min. For BCC, E ranged from 0 to 12.78 µSv for radiologist, 0–8.43 µSv for radiographer and 0–4.05 µSv for nurse. Patient DAP and FT ranged between 0.12 and 117.3 Gy cm2 and 0.57–15.83 min. Conclusions: This study shows that doses to all operators performing hepatobiliary interventional procedures can be very low.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
JournalCardioVascular and Interventional Radiology
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Jan 17 2018


  • Interventional radiology
  • Occupational exposure
  • Radiation dosage
  • Radiation protection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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