Procoagulant Imbalance in Klinefelter Syndrome Assessed by Thrombin Generation Assay and Whole-Blood Thromboelastometry

R. Indirli, E. Ferrante, E. Scalambrino, E. Profka, M. Clerici, T. Lettera, A.L. Serban, W. Vena, A. Pizzocaro, M. Bonomi, B. Cangiano, G. Carosi, G. Mazziotti, L. Persani, A. Lania, M. Arosio, F. Peyvandi, G. Mantovani, A. Tripodi

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Context: Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is a condition at increased risk of thrombosis compared to 46,XY men. Objective: This work aimed to investigate the coagulation balance of KS patients by thrombin generation assay (TGA) and thromboelastometry. Methods: An observational, cross-sectional study was conducted at 3 tertiary endocrinological centers in Milan, Italy. Fifty-eight KS patients and 58 age-matched healthy controls were included. Anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy and known coagulation disorders were exclusion criteria. TGA was performed in platelet-poor plasma (PPP) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Whole-blood thromboelastometry and activities of coagulation factors were assessed. Endogenous thrombin potential (ETP), the area under the thrombin generation curve, assessed with and without thrombomodulin (ETP-TM+ and ETP-TM-), and their ratio (ETP ratio), were considered as indexes of procoagulant imbalance. Results: Patients with KS displayed higher PPP-ETP-TM+ (mean 1528 vs 0.1315 nM × min; P < .001), PPP-ETP ratio (0.78 vs 0.0.70; P < .001), factor (F)VIII (135% vs 0.107%; P = .001), fibrinogen (283 vs 0.241 mg/dL; P < .001), and FVIII/protein C ratio (1.21 vs 0.1.06; P < .05) compared to controls. Protein C was comparable in the 2 groups. Similar results were observed in PRP. The ETP ratio was positively associated with FVIII (ρ = 0.538, P < .001) in KS. Thromboelastometry parameters confirmed evidence of hypercoagulability in KS. Conclusion: Patients with KS display a procoagulant imbalance expressed by increased thrombin generation both in PPP and PRP, which is at least in part explained by increased FVIII levels. The procoagulant imbalance, which was confirmed by thromboelastometry, may be responsible for the thrombotic events observed in these patients. Further investigation on the benefit/risk ratio of antithrombotic prophylaxis is warranted.

Original languageItalian
Pages (from-to)E1660-E1672
JournalJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2021

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