Post-COVID-19 Syndrome: Involvement and Interactions between Respiratory, Cardiovascular and Nervous Systems

Valeria Visco, Carolina Vitale, Antonella Rispoli, Carmine Izzo, Nicola Virtuoso, Germano Junior Ferruzzi, Mario Santopietro, Americo Melfi, Maria Rosaria Rusciano, Angelantonio Maglio, Paola Di Pietro, Albino Carrizzo, Gennaro Galasso, Alessandro Vatrella, Carmine Vecchione, Michele Ciccarelli

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Though the acute effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection have been extensively reported, the long-term effects are less well described. Specifically, while clinicians endure to battle COVID-19, we also need to develop broad strategies to manage post-COVID-19 symptoms and encourage those affected to seek suitable care. This review addresses the possible involvement of the lung, heart and brain in post-viral syndromes and describes suggested management of post-COVID-19 syndrome. Post-COVID-19 respiratory manifestations comprise coughing and shortness of breath. Furthermore, arrhythmias, palpitations, hypotension, increased heart rate, venous thromboembolic diseases, myocarditis and acute heart failure are usual cardiovascular events. Among neurological manifestations, headache, peripheral neuropathy symptoms, memory issues, lack of concentration and sleep disorders are most commonly observed with varying frequencies. Finally, mental health issues affecting mental abilities and mood fluctuations, namely anxiety and depression, are frequently seen. Finally, long COVID is a complex syndrome with protracted heterogeneous symptoms, and patients who experience post-COVID-19 sequelae require personalized treatment as well as ongoing support.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)524
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jan 20 2022


Dive into the research topics of 'Post-COVID-19 Syndrome: Involvement and Interactions between Respiratory, Cardiovascular and Nervous Systems'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this