Percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale under transthoracic echocardiography guidance — Midterm results

Tao Yang, Gianfranco Butera, Wen Bin Ou-Yang, Guang Zhi Zhao, Feng Wen Zhang, Xiang Bin Pan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Conventional percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale (PFO) is usually performed under the guidance of fluoroscopy. Whether closure of PFO under transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) guidance only is safe and effective is unknown. The present study therefore aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of percutaneous closure of PFO under TTE guidance only. Methods: This study retrospectively enrolled a total of 52 consecutive patients (55.8% male, mean age 34.0±13.0 years, range, 10–59 years) with PFO treated at our institution from June 2015 to September 2017 by percutaneous closure under echocardiographic guidance only. The patients mean body weight was 58.7±10.8 kg. Patients underwent follow-up by TTE immediately post procedure by electrocardiogram and TTE at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after discharge and annually thereafter, and by clinical evaluation at all time points. Results: Of the 52 patients, 47 (90.4%) were successfully treated by percutaneous closure under TTE guidance. The mean procedure duration (from puncture to sheath removal) was 21.0±6.2 (range, 11–33) minutes. A trivial residual shunt which disappeared 24 hours later was observed in only 1 (1.9%) patient immediately post procedure. Median hospital stay was 3.0 days without severe complications such as peripheral vascular injury or cardiac perforation at discharge. At median 15.5 (11.3, 18.0) months follow-up, there were no complications such as death, stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA) and residual shunt. Conclusions: In this single center study of mostly lean patients, percutaneous closure of PFO under TTE guidance as the only imaging tool appeared effective at midterm follow-up, while avoiding radiation exposure, endotracheal intubation and contrast agent use.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2297-2304
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Thoracic Disease
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 1 2019


  • Patent foramen ovale (PFO)
  • Percutaneous intervention
  • Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine


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