Pedicle screw insertion techniques: an update and review of the literature.

Fabrizio Perna, Raffaele Borghi, F. Pilla, N Stefanini, A. Mazzotti, M. Chehrassan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Pedicle screw construct have become one of the most practiced procedure in spinal surgery. Despite commonly used, questions remain about their safety especially for the thoracic spine and in deformity where difficulty in positioning can lead to pedicle breach and adjacent structures injury. Misplacement rates have been reported to be from 5 to 41% in the lumbar spine and from 3 to 55% in the thoracic spine. Hence, various procedures have been described in order to improve pedicle screw insertion accuracy. Aim of this study is to evaluate current concepts on pedicle screws placement techniques to better understand recent attitude and clarify some doubts when selecting the most proper method.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)165-169
Number of pages5
JournalMusculoskeletal Surgery
Publication statusPublished - 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Computer-assisted surgery
  • Fluoroscopy
  • Freehand
  • Navigation
  • Scoliosis
  • Spinal stenosis
  • Spondylolisthesis
  • Vertebral entry points


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