Novel CineECG enables anatomical 3D localization and classification of bundle branch blocks

Machteld J Boonstra, Bashar N Hilderink, Emanuela T Locati, Folkert W Asselbergs, Peter Loh, Peter M van Dam

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


AIMS: Ventricular conduction disorders can induce arrhythmias and impair cardiac function. Bundle branch blocks (BBBs) are diagnosed by 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG), but discrimination between BBBs and normal tracings can be challenging. CineECG computes the temporo-spatial trajectory of activation waveforms in a 3D heart model from 12-lead ECGs. Recently, in Brugada patients, CineECG has localized the terminal components of ventricular depolarization to right ventricle outflow tract (RVOT), coincident with arrhythmogenic substrate localization detected by epicardial electro-anatomical maps. This abnormality was not found in normal or right BBB (RBBB) patients. This study aimed at exploring whether CineECG can improve the discrimination between left BBB (LBBB)/RBBB, and incomplete RBBB (iRBBB).

METHODS AND RESULTS: We utilized 500 12-lead ECGs from the online Physionet-XL-PTB-Diagnostic ECG Database with a certified ECG diagnosis. The mean temporo-spatial isochrone trajectory was calculated and projected into the anatomical 3D heart model. We established five CineECG classes: 'Normal', 'iRBBB', 'RBBB', 'LBBB', and 'Undetermined', to which each tracing was allocated. We determined the accuracy of CineECG classification with the gold standard diagnosis. A total of 391 ECGs were analysed (9 ECGs were excluded for noise) and 240/266 were correctly classified as 'normal', 14/17 as 'iRBBB', 55/55 as 'RBBB', 51/51 as 'LBBB', and 31 as 'undetermined'. The terminal mean temporal spatial isochrone contained most information about the BBB localization.

CONCLUSION: CineECG provided the anatomical localization of different BBBs and accurately differentiated between normal, LBBB and RBBB, and iRBBB. CineECG may aid clinical diagnostic work-up, potentially contributing to the difficult discrimination between normal, iRBBB, and Brugada patients.


  • Action Potentials
  • Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis
  • Bundle-Branch Block/diagnosis
  • Electrocardiography
  • Heart Ventricles
  • Humans


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