Noninvasive neuromodulation in Parkinson's disease: Neuroplasticity implication and therapeutic perspectives

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Noninvasive brain stimulation techniques can be used to study in vivo the changes of cortical activity and plasticity in subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD). Also, an increasing number of studies have suggested a potential therapeutic effect of these techniques. High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) represent the most used stimulation paradigms to treat motor and nonmotor symptoms of PD. Both techniques can enhance cortical activity, compensating for its reduction related to subcortical dysfunction in PD. However, the use of suboptimal stimulation parameters can lead to therapeutic failure. Clinical studies are warranted to clarify in PD the additional effects of these stimulation techniques on pharmacologic and neurorehabilitation treatments.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)185-198
Number of pages14
JournalHandbook of Clinical Neurology
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Electrodes
  • Humans
  • Neuronal Plasticity
  • Parkinson Disease/therapy
  • Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation
  • Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation


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