Nickel release from new conventional stainless steel, recycled, and nickel-free orthodontic brackets: An in vitro study.

Maria Francesca Sfondrini, Vittorio Cacciafesta, Elena Maffia, Andrea Scribante, Giancarla Alberti, Raffaela Biesuz, Catherine Klersy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The aim of this study was to compare the nickel released from 3 kinds of orthodontic brackets: new conventional stainless steel, recycled stainless steel, and nickel-free brackets. This in-vitro study was performed by using a classic batch procedure. Samples were immersed in artificial saliva at various acidities (pH 4.2, 6.5, 7.6) over an extended time interval (0.25, 1, 24, 48, and 120 hours). The amount of nickel released was determined by using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer and an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer. Statistical analysis included a linear regression model for repeated measures, with calculation of Huber White robust standard errors to account for intrabracket correlation of data. For post-hoc comparisons, the Bonferroni correction was applied. The recycled brackets released the most nickel (74.02 +/- 170.29 microg per gram); the new stainless steel brackets released 7.14 +/- 20.83 microg per gram. The nickel-free brackets released the least nickel (0.03 +/- 0.06 microg per gram). All the differences among the groups were statistically significant (P = 0.000). Reconditioned brackets released the most nickel. Moreover, the highest nickel release was recorded in the 2 experiments performed at pH 4.2; it was lower at pH 6.5 and 7.6. Conversely, no relevant differences were observed overall between the maxillary and mandibular arches. 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)809-815
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2010

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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