Myopia onset and progression: Can it be prevented?

Andrea Russo, Francesco Semeraro, Mario R. Romano, Rodolfo Mastropasqua, Roberto Dell'Omo, Ciro Costagliola

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Myopia is the commonest ocular abnormality and the high and growing prevalence of myopia, especially but not only in Asian populations, as well as its progressive nature in children, has contributed to a recent surge in interest. Such worldwide growing prevalence seems to be associated with increasing educational pressures, combined with lifestyle changes, which have reduced the time that children spend outdoors. Highly nearsighted people are at greater risk for several vision-threatening problems such as retinal detachments, choroidal neovascularization, cataracts and glaucoma, thus the potential benefits of interventions that can limit or prevent myopia progression would be of remarkable social impact. Our understanding of the regulatory processes that lead an eye to refractive errors is undoubtedly incomplete but has grown enormously in the last decades thanks to the animal studies, observational clinical studies, and randomized clinical trials recently published. In this review we assess the effects of several types of life-style and interventions, including outdoor activities, eye drops, undercorrection of myopia, multifocal spectacles, contact lenses, and refractive surgery on the onset and progression of nearsightedness.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)693-705
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Ophthalmology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • Atropine
  • Contact lenses
  • Myopia onset
  • Myopia progression
  • Outdoor activities
  • Refractive surgery
  • Undercorrection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Medicine(all)


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