Model for the assessment of heart period and arterial pressure variability interactions and of respiration influences

G. Baselli, S. Cerutti, F. Badilini, L. Biancardi, A. Porta, M. Pagani, F. Lombardi, O. Rimoldi, R. Furlan, A. Malliani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A model which assesses the closed-loop interaction between heart period (HP) and arterial pressure (AP) variabilities and the influence of respiration on both is applied to evaluate the sources of low frequency (LF∼0·1 Hz) and high frequency (HF, respiratory rate ∼0·25 Hz) in conscious dogs (n=18) and humans (n=5). A resonance of AP closed-loop regulation is found to amplify LF oscillations. In dogs, the resonance gain increases slightly during baroreceptor unloading (mild hypotension obtained with nitroglycerine (NTG) i.v. infusion, n=8) and coronary artery occlusion ((CAO), n=6), and it is abolished by ganglionic transmission blockade ((ARF), Arfonad i.v. infusion, n=3). In humans, this gain is considerably increased by passive tilt. Different, possibly central, sources of LF oscillations are also evaluated, finding a strong rhythmic modulation of HP during CAO. At HF, a direct respiratory arrhythmia is dominant in dogs at control, while it is considerably reduced during CAO. On the contrary, in humans, a strong influence of respiration on AP is shown which induces a reflex respiratory arrhythmia. An index of the gain of baroreceptive response, αcl, was decreased by NTG and CAO, and virtually abolished by chronic arterial baroreceptive denervation (TABD, n=4) and ARF.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)143-152
Number of pages10
JournalMedical and Biological Engineering and Computing
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Mar 1994


  • Arterial pressure variability
  • Autonomic nervous system
  • Baroreceptive mechanisms
  • Cardiovascular control
  • Closed-loop identification
  • Heart rate variability
  • Mayer waves
  • Respiratory arrhythmia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Information Management
  • Health Informatics
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computational Theory and Mathematics


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