Management of pediatric post-infectious neurological syndromes

Elena Bozzola, Giulia Spina, Massimiliano Valeriani, Laura Papetti, Fabiana Ursitti, Rino Agostiniani, Cristina Mascolo, Margherita Ruggiero, Chiara Di Camillo, Anna Quondamcarlo, Luigi Matera, Davide Vecchio, Luigi Memo, Alberto Villani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Post-Infectious Neurological Syndromes (PINS) are heterogeneous neurological disorders with post or para-infectious onset. PINS diagnosis is complex, mainly related to the absence of any recognized guidelines and a univocal definition. Aim of the study: To elaborate a diagnostic guide for PINS. Materials and methods: We retrospectively analysed patients younger than 14 years old admitted to Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital in Rome for PINS from December 2005 to March 2018. Scientific literature using PubMed as research platform was analysed: the key words “Post-Infectious Neurological Syndromes” were used. Results: A polysymptomatic presentation occurred in a percentage of 88% of the children. Motor signs and visual disturbances the most observed symptoms/signs were the most detached, followed by fever, speech disturbances, sleepiness, headache and bradipsychism. Blood investigations are compatible with inflammation, as a prodromal illnesses was documented in most cases. Normal cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) characteristics has been found in the majority of the study population. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was positive for demyelinating lesions. Antibiotics, acyclovir and steroids have been given as treatment. Discussion: We suggest diagnostic criteria for diagnosis of PINS, considering the following parameters: neurological symptoms, timing of disease onset, blood and CSF laboratory tests, MRI imaging. Conclusions: We propose criteria to guide clinician to diagnose PINS as definitive, probable or possible. Further studies are required to validate diagnostic criteria.

Original languageEnglish
Article number17
JournalItalian Journal of Pediatrics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021


  • Acute demyelinating syndromes
  • Children
  • Post-infectious neurological syndromes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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