Low PI-RADS assessment category excludes extraprostatic extension (≥pT3a) of prostate cancer: a histology-validated study including 301 operated patients

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Objectives: To evaluate whether low PI-RADS v2 assessment categories are effective at excluding extraprostatic extension (EPE) of prostate cancer (≥pT3a PCa). Methods: The local institutional ethics committee approved this retrospective analysis of 301 consecutive PCa patients. Patients were classified as low- or intermediate/high-risk based on clinical parameters and underwent pre-surgical multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging. A PI-RADS v2 assessment category and ESUR EPE score were assigned for each lesion by two readers working in consensus. Histopathologic analysis of the whole-mount radical prostatectomy specimen was the reference standard. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the association of PI-RADS v2 assessment category with final histology ≥pT3a PCa. Results: For a PI-RADS v2 assessment category threshold of 3, the overall performance for ruling out (sensitivity, negative predictive value, negative likelihood ratio) ≥pT3a PCa was 99%/98%/0.04 and was similar in both the low-risk (96%/97%/0.12; N = 137) and the intermediate/high-risk groups (100%/100%/0.0; N = 164). In univariate analysis, all clinical and tumor characteristics except age were significantly associated with ≥pT3a PCa. In multivariate analysis, PI-RADS v2 assessment categories ≤ 3 had a protective effect relative to categories 4 and 5. The inclusion of ESUR EPE score improved the AUC of ≥pT3a PCa prediction (from 0.73 to 0.86, p = 0.04 in the overall cohort). The impact of PI-RADS v2 assessment category is reflected in a nomogram derived on the basis of our cohort. Conclusions: In our cohort, low PI-RADS v2 assessment categories of 3 or less confidently ruled out the presence of ≥pT3a PCa irrespective of clinical risk group. Key Points: • Our analysis of 301 mp-MRI and RARP specimens showed that the addition of PI-RADS v2 assessment categories to clinical parameters improves the exclusion of ≥pT3a (extraprostatic) prostate cancer. • PI-RADS v2 assessment categories of 1 to 3 are useful for excluding ≥pT3a prostate cancer with a NPV of 98%; such patients can be considered as candidates for less invasive approaches. • The ability to exclude ≥pT3a prostate cancer may improve confidence in choosing nerve-sparing surgery or in avoiding pelvic nodal dissections, and similarly for patients undergoing radiotherapy, in adopting short-course adjuvant hormonal therapy or foregoing prophylactic nodal irradiation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5478-5487
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Radiology
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 1 2019


  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Nomogram
  • Prostate cancer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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