Ischemic stroke across sexes: What is the status quo?

Luca Liberale, Federico Carbone, Fabrizio Montecucco, Cathérine Gebhard, Thomas F. Lüscher, Susanne Wegener, Giovanni G. Camici

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Stroke prevalence is expected to increase in the next decades due to the aging of the Western population. Ischemic stroke (IS) shows an age- and sex-dependent distribution in which men represent the most affected population within 65 years of age, being passed by post-menopausal women in older age groups. Furthermore, a sexual dimorphism concerning risk factors, presentation and treatment of IS has been widely recognized. In order to address these phenomena, a number of issue have been raised involving both socio-economical and biological factors. The latter can be either dependent on sex hormones or due to intrinsic factors. Although women have poorer outcomes and are more likely to die after a cerebrovascular event, they are still underrepresented in clinical trials and this is mirrored by the lack of sex-tailored therapies. A greater effort is needed in the future to ensure improved treatment and quality of life to both sexes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3-17
Number of pages15
JournalFrontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Publication statusPublished - Jul 1 2018


  • Estrogen
  • Gender
  • Ischemic stroke
  • Progesterone
  • Sex
  • Sex chromosomes
  • Sexual dimorphism
  • Testosterone

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrine and Autonomic Systems


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