Integrating augmented reality tools in breast cancer related lymphedema prognostication and diagnosis

Marco Invernizzi, Letterio Runza, Alessandro De Sire, Lorenzo Lippi, Concetta Blundo, Donatella Gambini, Renzo Boldorini, Stefano Ferrero, Nicola Fusco

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Breast cancer related lymphedema (BCRL) is a detrimental condition characterized by fluid accumulation in the upper limb in breast cancer patients subjected to axillary surgery and/or radiations. Its etiology is multifactorial and include also tumor-specific pathological features, such as lymphovascular invasion (LVI) and extranodal extension (ENE). To date, no widely employed guidelines for the early diagnosis of BCRL are available. Here, we illustrate a protocol for a digitally assisted BCRL assessment using a 3D laser scanner (3DLS) and a tablet computer. It has been specifically optimized in a discovery cohort of high-risk breast cancer patients. This study provides a proof-of-principle that augmented reality tools, such as 3DLS, can be incorporated into the clinical workup of BCRL to allow for a precise, reproducible, reliable, and cheap diagnosis.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere60093
JournalJournal of Visualized Experiments
Issue number156
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2020


  • 3D laser scanner
  • Axillary lymph nodes dissection
  • Breast cancer
  • Breast cancer related lymphedema
  • Extranodal extension
  • Issue 156
  • Lymphovascular invasion
  • Medicine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)


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