Increased long-term risk of new-onset diabetes mellitus in white-coat and masked hypertension

Giuseppe Mancia, Michele Bombelli, Rita Facchetti, Fabiana Madotto, Fosca Quarti-Trevano, Guido Grassi, Roberto Sega

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


OBJECTIVE: A sustained blood pressure elevation is associated with an increased risk of new-onset diabetes mellitus. Whether this is the case also in white-coat and masked hypertension is unknown. METHODS: In 1412 individuals of the Pressioni Arteriose Monitorate E Loro Associazioni study stratified for sex and age decades, we measured office, home and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure together with fasting plasma glucose and other metabolic variables. This allowed to identify patients with white-coat, masked, sustained hypertension and true normotension. RESULTS: Over a 10-year period, the increase in plasma glucose and the incidence of new-onset diabetes (plasma glucose ≤126 mg/dl or use of antidiabetic drugs) was significantly greater in individuals with white-coat and masked hypertension than in those with 'true' normotension (age and sex-adjusted risk 2.9 and 2.7, respectively), the increase being similar to that of sustained hypertensive individuals. The adjusted risk showed a marked increase when development of an impaired fasting glucose condition was also considered, and the results were similar when individuals reporting antihypertensive drug treatment were excluded or white-coat and masked hypertension were identified by office versus home blood pressure. The increased risk of new-onset diabetes become no more significant when data were adjusted for initial blood glucose and BMI, which, at a multivariate analysis, were the most significant predictors of this condition, with only a small although significant contribution of the initial blood pressure. CONCLUSION: Thus, white-coat and masked hypertension are associated with a long-term greater progression of blood glucose abnormalities and an increased risk of developing diabetes. This is largely accounted for by the metabolic abnormalities that are frequent components of these conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1672-1678
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Hypertension
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2009


  • Ambulatory blood pressure
  • Diabetes
  • Hypertension
  • Masked hypertension
  • White-coat hypertension

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Physiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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