Impact of Early Postnatal Nutrition on the NMR Urinary Metabolic Profile of Infant

Flaminia Cesare Marincola, Sara Corbu, Milena Lussu, Antonio Noto, Angelica Dessì, Stefania Longo, Elisa Civardi, Francesca Garofoli, Beatrice Grenci, Elisa Mongini, Andrea Budelli, Alessia Grinzato, Francesca Fasano, Vassilios Fanos, Mauro Stronati

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


NMR-based metabolomics was used to compare the metabolic urinary profiles of exclusively breast-fed term infants (n = 11) with those of a double-blinded controlled trial with 49 formula-fed term newborns randomized to receive either an infant formula enriched by functional ingredients (n = 24) or a standard formula (n = 25). Anthropometric measurements and urine samples were taken at enrollment (within the first month of life), at around 60 days of life, and at the end of study period (average age of 130 days). The metabolic profiles were examined in relation to time and diet strategy. A common age-dependent modification of the urine metabolome was observed for the three types of nutrition, mainly characterized by similar temporal trends of choline, betaine, myoinositol, taurine, and citrate. Contrariwise, differences in the metabolic profiles were identified according to the type of diet (human versus formula milk), while no significant difference was observed between the two formulas. These modifications are discussed mainly in terms of the different milk compositions. Despite the low number of enrolled infants (n = 60), these findings pointed out the potential of the metabolomics approach for neonatal nutritional science, in particular to provide important contributions to the optimization of formula milk.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3712-3723
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Proteome Research
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 7 2016


  • formula milk
  • human milk
  • metabolomics
  • neonatology
  • NMR
  • urine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Biochemistry


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