Imaging of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms

Giuditta Chiti, Giulia Grazzini, Diletta Cozzi, Ginevra Danti, Benedetta Matteuzzi, Vincenza Granata, Silvia Pradella, Laura Recchia, Luca Brunese, Vittorio Miele

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (panNENs) represent the second most common pancreatic tumors. They are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with varying clinical expression and biological behavior, from indolent to aggressive ones. PanNENs can be functioning or non-functioning in accordance with their ability or not to produce metabolically active hormones. They are histopathologically classified according to the 2017 World Health Organization (WHO) classification system. Although the final diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumor relies on histologic examina-tion of biopsy or surgical specimens, both morphologic and functional imaging are crucial for patient care. Morphologic imaging with ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used for initial evaluation and staging of disease, as well as surveillance and therapy monitoring. Functional imaging techniques with somatostatin receptor scin-tigraphy (SRS) and positron emission tomography (PET) are used for functional and metabolic assessment that is helpful for therapy management and post-therapeutic re-staging. This article re-views the morphological and functional imaging modalities now available and the imaging features of panNENs. Finally, future imaging challenges, such as radiomics analysis, are illustrated.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8895
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number17
Publication statusPublished - Sept 1 2021


  • Abdominal radiology
  • Computed tomography (CT)
  • Gastrointestinal radiology
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (panNENs)
  • Positron emission tomography (PET)
  • Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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