Hyperkinetic movement disorders in congenital disorders of glycosylation

G Mostile, R Barone, A Nicoletti, R Rizzo, D Martinelli, L Sturiale, A Fiumara, J Jankovic, M Zappia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) represent an increasing number of rare inherited metabolic diseases associated with abnormal glycan metabolism and disease onset in infancy or early childhood. Most CDG are multisystemic diseases mainly affecting the central nervous system. The aim of the current study was to investigate hyperkinetic movement disorders in patients affected by CDG and to characterize phenomenology based on CDG subtypes.

METHODS: Subjects were identified from a cohort of patients with CDG who were referred to the University Hospital of Catania, Italy. Patients were evaluated by neurologists with expertise in movement disorders and videotaped using a standardized protocol.

RESULTS: A variety of hyperkinetic movement disorders was detected in eight unrelated CDG patients. Involuntary movements were generally observed early in childhood, maintaining a clinical stability over time. Distribution ranged from a generalized, especially in younger subjects, to a segmental/multifocal involvement. In patients with phosphomannomutase 2 CDG, the principal movement disorders included dystonia and choreo-athetosis. In patients affected by other CDG types, the movement disorders ranged from pure generalized chorea to mixed movement disorders including dystonia and complex stereotypies.

CONCLUSIONS: Hyperkinetic movement disorder is a key clinical feature in patients with CDG. CDG should be considered in the differential diagnosis of childhood-onset dyskinesia, especially when associated with ataxia, developmental delay, intellectual disability, autism or seizure disorder.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Journal of Neurology
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - May 27 2019


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