High-density mapping of Koch’s triangle during sinus rhythm and typical AV nodal reentrant tachycardia: new insight

Claudio Pandozi, Carlo Lavalle, Maria Grazia Bongiorni, Angelo Catalano, Gemma Pelargonio, Maurizio Russo, Agostino Piro, Angelo Carbone, Maria Lucia Narducci, Marco Galeazzi, Sabina Ficili, Francesco Piccolo, Francesco Maddaluno, Maurizio Malacrida, Furio Colivicchi, Luca Segreti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Atrial activation during typical atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) exhibits anatomic variability and spatially heterogeneous propagation inside the Koch’s triangle (KT). The mechanism of the reentrant circuit has not been elucidated yet. Aim of this study is to describe the distribution of Jackman and Haïssaguerre potentials within the KT and to explore the activation mode of the KT, in sinus rhythm and during the slow-fast AVNRT. Methods: Forty-five consecutive cases of successful slow pathway (SP) ablation of typical slow-fast AVNRT from the CHARISMA registry were included. Results: The KT geometry was obtained on the basis of the electroanatomic information using the Rhythmia mapping system (Boston Scientific) (mean number of points acquired inside the KT = 277 ± 47, mean mapping time = 11.9 ± 4 min). The postero-septal regions bounded anteriorly by the tricuspid annulus and posteriorly by the lateral wall toward the crista terminalis showed a higher prevalence of Jackman potentials than mid-postero-septal regions along the tendon of Todaro and coronary sinus (CS) (98% vs. 16%, p < 0.0001). Haïssaguerre potentials seemed to have a converse distribution across the KT (0% vs. 84%, p < 0.0001). Fast pathway insertion, as located during AVNRT, was mostly recorded in an antero-septal position (n = 36, 80%), rather than in a mid-septal (n = 6, 13.3%) or even postero-septal (n = 3, 7%) location. During typical slow-fast AVNRT, two types of propagation around the CS were discernible: anterior and posterior, n = 31 (69%), or only anterior, n = 14 (31%). During the first procedure, the SP was eliminated, and acute procedural success was achieved (median of 4 [3–5] RF ablations). Conclusion: High-density mapping of KT in AVNRT patients both during sinus rhythm and during tachycardia provides new electrophysiological insights. A better understanding and a more precise definition of the arrhythmogenic substrate in AVNRT patients may have prognostic value, especially in high-risk cases. Trial Registration: Catheter Ablation of Arrhythmias With High Density Mapping System in the Real World Practice (CHARISMA) URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ Identifier: NCT03793998.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)487-497
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • High-density mapping system
  • Koch’s triangle
  • Rhythmia
  • Slow pathway

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)


Dive into the research topics of 'High-density mapping of Koch’s triangle during sinus rhythm and typical AV nodal reentrant tachycardia: new insight'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this