Hereditary palmoplantar keratodermas. Part I. Non-syndromic palmoplantar keratodermas

L Guerra, M Castori, B Didona, D Castiglia, G Zambruno

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The term palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK) indicates any form of persistent thickening of the epidermis of palms and soles and includes genetic as well as acquired conditions. We review the nosology of hereditary PPKs that comprise an increasing number of entities with different prognoses, and a multitude of associated cutaneous and extracutaneous features. On the basis of the phenotypic consequences of the underlying genetic defect, hereditary PPKs may be divided into the following: (i) non-syndromic, isolated PPKs, which are characterized by a unique or predominant palmoplantar involvement; (ii) non-syndromic PPKs with additional distinctive cutaneous and adnexal manifestations, here named complex PPKs; (iii) syndromic PPKs, in which PPK is associated with specific extracutaneous manifestations. To date, the diagnosis of the different hereditary PPKs is based mainly on clinical history and features combined with histopathological findings. In recent years, the exponentially increasing use of next-generation sequencing technologies has led to the identification of several novel disease genes, and thus substantially contributed to elucidate the molecular basis of such a heterogeneous group of disorders. Here, we focus on hereditary non-syndromic isolated and complex PPKs. Syndromic PPKs are reviewed in the second part of this 2-part article, where other well-defined genetic diseases, which may present PPK among their phenotypic manifestations, are also listed and diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for PPKs are summarized.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)704-719
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2018


  • Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport/genetics
  • Antigens, Ly/genetics
  • Aquaporin 5/genetics
  • Carrier Proteins/genetics
  • Collagen/genetics
  • Connexin 43/genetics
  • Desmoglein 1/genetics
  • Desmoplakins/genetics
  • Genes, pX/genetics
  • Glycoproteins/genetics
  • Humans
  • Keratins/genetics
  • Keratoderma, Palmoplantar/classification
  • Metalloendopeptidases/genetics
  • Phenotype
  • Serpins/genetics
  • TRPV Cation Channels/genetics
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins/genetics
  • Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator/genetics


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