Effects of visual feedback absence on force control during isometric contraction

Eloisa Limonta, Susanna Rampichini, Emiliano Cè, Fabio Esposito

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the force control in the complete absence of visual feedback and the effect of repeated contractions without visual feedback. Methods: Twelve physically active males (age 23 ± 1 years; stature 1.74 ± 0.07 m; body mass 71 ± 6 kg) performed isometric tasks at 20, 40 and 60 % maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) for 20 s. For each intensity, a trial with force visual feedback (FB) was followed by 3 trials without FB (noFB-1, noFB-2, noFB-3). During contraction, force and surface electromyogram (EMG) from the vastus lateralis muscle were recorded. From force signal, the coefficient of variation (CV, force stability index), the distance of force from target (ΔF, force accuracy index) and the time within the target (t-target) were determined. From EMG signal, the root mean square (RMS) and mean frequency (MF) were calculated. Results: MVC was 679.14 ± 38.22 N. In noFB-1, CV was similar to FB, ΔF was higher and t-target lower (P 

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)507-519
Number of pages13
JournalEuropean Journal of Applied Physiology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • EMG
  • Force accuracy
  • Force stability
  • Learning effect
  • Visual deprivation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)
  • Medicine(all)


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