Effects of temperature and fatigue on the electromechanical delay components

Emiliano Cè, Susanna Rampichini, Luca Agnello, Eloisa Limonta, Arsenio Veicsteinas, Fabio Esposito

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: Neuromuscular activation can be influenced by both muscle temperature (Tm) and fatigue. Methods: To assess the effects of Tm and fatigue on the electromechanical delay (EMD), 15 participants performed voluntary isometric contractions of different intensities under neutral (TmN), low (TmL), and high (TmH) Tm, before and after a fatiguing exercise. During contraction, electromyogram (EMG), mechanomyogram (MMG), and force (F) were recorded from the biceps brachii muscle. The EMD and the latencies between EMG and MMG (Δt EMG-MMG, which includes the electrochemical processes of EMD) and between MMG and F (Δt MMG-F, which includes the mechanical processes of EMD) were calculated. Results: TmL increased only Δt EMG-MMG, both before and after fatigue. Fatigue lengthened EMD, Δt EMG-MMG, and Δt MMG-F under all Tm to a similar extent. Conclusions: While fatigue increased all EMD components, muscle cooling affected only the electrochemical but not the mechanical processes of EMD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)566-576
Number of pages11
JournalMuscle and Nerve
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2013


  • Cooling
  • EMD
  • EMG
  • Isometric contraction
  • MMG

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • Physiology (medical)
  • Physiology


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