Effects of estroprogestins containing natural estrogen on vaginal flora

Francesco De Seta, Stefano Restaino, Rubina Banco, Ester Conversano, Rossella De Leo, Maddalena Tonon, Gianpaolo Maso, Giulia Barbati, Stefano Lello

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Estroprogestins with "natural oestrogen" has represented a new option in terms of combined hormonal contraception. So, the aim of this study is to investigate how estroprogestins with natural estrogen may modify the vaginal niche. In literature, very few studies focused on the interaction between hormonal contraception and vaginal milieu. This is a prospective comparative study. We enrolled 60 women from January 2013 to September 2013, 30 of them were administered estradiol valerate dienogest (E2V+DNG-Klaira®) in a quadriphasic regimen, while the other 30 women were administered 17-β estradiol with nomestrol acetate (EV+NOMAC-Zoely®) in a monophasic regimen. After a baseline study of vaginal milieu at recruitment of patients (Gram stain with Nugent score, vaginal pH, vaginal wet mount for the quantification of leukocytes, Lactobacilli and/or presence of Candida), we performed the same follow-up after six months of estroprogestin therapy. Our results showed that the women treated with E2V+DNG had a trend of an improvement of vaginal health in terms of increase of lactobacillar flora and reduction of vaginal pH in place of women treated with EV+NOMAC that showed a reduction of cervical mucus. Finally, our data about the effects on vaginal flora exerted by two estroprogestin pills (EPs) containing a natural estrogen suggest slight, but interesting differences in terms of vaginal ecology. These differences could be related to the type of estrogen, type of progestin, regimen of administration and, after all, to the net balance between estrogenic and progestin component of the EPs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)830-835
Number of pages6
JournalGynecological Endocrinology
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1 2014


  • Lactobacilli
  • Leukocytes
  • Oral contraceptive
  • Vaginal flora

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology
  • Medicine(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Effects of estroprogestins containing natural estrogen on vaginal flora'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this