Central conducting lymphatics (CCLs) disorders represent a broad spectrum of clinical entities ranging from self-limiting traumatic leaks treated by conservative strategies, to complex lymphatic circulation abnormalities that are progressive and unresponsive to currently available treatments. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance lymphangiography (DCMRL) performed by intranodal injection of gadolinium-based contrast material is a recently developed technique which allows a minimally invasive evaluation of the CCL abnormalities providing a dynamic assessment of lymph flow and its pathways. In our institution, DCMRL is performed after bilateral cannulation of inguinal lymph nodes, using a MR protocol which includes volumetric 3D T2-SPACE (sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts using different flip-angle evolution) and free-breathing respiratory navigated sequence and TWIST (time-resolved angiography with Interleaved stochastic trajectories) MR angiography sequence, during intranodal injection of paramagnetic contrast medium. Although DCMRL applications in clinical practice are still improving, a minimally invasive assessment of lymphatic pathways is particularly important both in pediatric patients with primitive lymphatic system disorders and in children with complex congenital heart disease associated with CCL impairment.
|Number of pages||7|
|Publication status||Published - May 2021|
- Contrast Media
- Lymphatic Diseases/diagnostic imaging
- Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods
- Organometallic Compounds