Deciphering Genetic Variants of Warfarin Metabolism in Children With Ventricular Assist Devices

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Warfarin is prescribed in patients with ventricular assist devices (VADs). Dosage depends on several factors including the underlying genotype. These include polymorphisms of genes encoding cytochrome P450 enzymes, the main ones being CYP2C9, VKORC1, and CYP4F2. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of CY2CP9 1*2*3*, VKORC1, and CYP4F2 in children with VADs and the time to reach the target international normalized ratio. We performed a retrospective/prospective study in children with VADs. We recorded polymorphisms, disease, type of VAD, ethnicity, age, gender, height, weight, INR values, bleeding, and thromboembolic episodes. Informed consent was obtained. We enrolled 34 children (19 male, 15 female), with a median age of 2 years (range 0.3-17 years) and median weight of 6.9Kg. The Berlin Heart was the most commonly implanted VAD (22/34; 64%), and the most common diagnosis was dilated cardiomyopathy. Statistical analysis confirmed a significant partial correlation with VKORC1 CC (p = 0.019). The CYP2C9*2 CT genotype showed a late rise in target INR values (p = 0.06), while the CYP2C9*2 CC showed a tendency toward an early INR rise (p = 0.024). We provide new information on the contribution of the warfarin polymorphisms in children with VAD implantation. Pharmacogenomic dosing for children using warfarin has the potential to improve clinical care in VAD patients. Patients with the CYP2C9*2 CT genotype may need more time or higher doses to reach target INR, while clinicians may need to be aware of the potential for a rapid rise in INR in patients with the CYP2C9*2 CC genotype.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1082-1087
Number of pages6
JournalPediatric Cardiology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2021


  • Adolescent
  • Anticoagulants/administration & dosage
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/genetics
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Female
  • Heart-Assist Devices
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • International Normalized Ratio
  • Male
  • Pharmacogenetics
  • Polymorphism, Genetic
  • Prospective Studies
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Vitamin K Epoxide Reductases/genetics
  • Warfarin/administration & dosage


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