Community-Based Rehabilitation Indicators: Validation and Preliminary Evidence for Disability in Italy

Marco Tofani, Giuseppina Esposito, Anna Berardi, Giovanni Galeoto, Silvia Iorio, Maurizio Marceca

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Community-based rehabilitation (CBR) is a multi-sectorial community strategy for guaranteeing that people with disabilities enjoy the same rights and opportunities as all other community members. CBR is organized in a five-component matrix-namely, health, education, social, livelihood, and empowerment. To measure the effectiveness of CBR, the World Health Organization (WHO) has developed standardized indicators. The objective of the present study is to translate and validate the CBR indicators (CBR-Is), providing preliminary evidence of their use for disability in Italy. After obtaining permission from the WHO, the CBR-Is followed a process of translation and cross-cultural adaptation according to international guidelines. An examination of internal consistency and reliability was than performed. The intra-rater reliability was estimated using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient with a 95% confidence interval. In order to measures the differences between people with and without disabilities, an independent sample t-test was used for quantitative indicators. The Italian version of the CBR-Is (IT-CBR-Is) was administered to 234 people. The internal consistency showed a good value, with a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.862, and the intra-rater reliability analysis showed solid values for each domain (range: 0.723-0.882). Statistically significant differences between people with and without disabilities were found for each domain of the CBR matrix-namely, health, social, education, livelihood, and empowerment. The IT-CBR-Is are consistent and reliable measures when used to investigate disability in a community-based inclusive development perspective. National stakeholders can now have specific indicators to implement services and actions for people with disabilities.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue number21
Publication statusPublished - Oct 26 2021


  • Community Health Services
  • Disabled Persons
  • Humans
  • Italy
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • World Health Organization


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