Clinical implications of diabetes in chronic liver disease: Diagnosis, outcomes and management, current and future perspectives

Diego García-Compeán, Emanuela Orsi, Ramesh Kumar, Felix Gundling, Tsutomu Nishida, Jesús Zacarías Villarreal-Pérez, Ángel N. Del Cueto-Aguilera, José A. González-González, Giuseppe Pugliese

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Diabetes mellitus (DM) is common in liver cirrhosis (LC). The pathophysiological association is bidirectional. DM is a risk factor of LC and LC is a diabetogenic condition. In the recent years, research on different aspects of the association DM and LC has been intensified. Nevertheless, it has been insufficient and still exist many gaps. The aims of this review are: (1) To discuss the latest understandings of the association of DM and LC in order to identify the strategies of early diagnosis; (2) To evaluate the impact of DM on outcomes of LC patients; and (3) To select the most adequate management benefiting the two conditions. Literature searches were conducted using PubMed, Ovid and Scopus engines for DM and LC, diagnosis, outcomes and management. The authors also provided insight from their own published experience. Based on the published studies, two types of DM associated with LC have emerged: Type 2 DM (T2DM) and hepatogenous diabetes (HD). High-quality evidences have determined that T2DM or HD significantly increase complications and death pre and post-liver transplantation. HD has been poorly studied and has not been recognized as a complication of LC. The management of DM in LC patients continues to be difficult and should be based on drug pharmacokinetics and the degree of liver failure. In conclusion, the clinical impact of DM in outcomes of LC patients has been the most studied item recently. Nevertheless many gaps still exist particularly in the management. These most important gaps were highlighted in order to propose future lines for research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)775-793
Number of pages19
JournalWorld Journal of Gastroenterology
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Feb 28 2022


  • Clinical implications
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Hepatogenous diabetes
  • Liver cirrhosis
  • Therapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology


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