Characterization and natural history of ventricular septal defects in the fetus

D. Paladini, S. Palmieri, A. Lamberti, A. Teodoro, P. Martinelli, C. Nappi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To characterize and describe the evolution of ventricular septal defects (VSD) from intra-uterine diagnosis to infancy in a population of fetuses with isolated defects. Methods: Sixty-eight fetuses with isolated VSD represented the study population. Of these, 28 underwent termination of pregnancy, 14 died in utero or after birth and 26 reached 1 year of age. In this population, the following variables were evaluated: presence of extracardiac or chromosomal anomalies, site and size of the defect, pregnancy outcome. These variables were assessed against closure of the VSD up to 1 year of age. Necropsies were available for all fetuses following termination of pregnancy. All surviving neonates were followed up directly or by telephone until documented echocardiographic closure of the defect or until 1 year of age. Results: There was a significant correlation between type of VSD and type of aneuploidy (P <0.001). A total of 26 surviving fetuses reached 1 year of age: 46.1% (n = 12) of all defects closed in utero, 23.1% (n = 6) closed during the first year of life and 30.8% (n = 8) remained patent. Only three (15.8%) of the 19 VSDs <3 mm remained patent in comparison with five (71.4%) of the seven defects > 3 mm (P <0.05). None of the malalignment VSDs closed, in comparison to 69% of the peri-membranous and 60% of the muscular defects. Conclusion: Ventricular septal defect can undergo spontaneous closure during intra-uterine life and this process depends upon the site and the size of the defect. These data may provide useful additional information to aid prenatal counseling.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)118-122
Number of pages5
JournalUltrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2000


  • Congenital heart disease
  • Fetal echocardiography
  • Fetus
  • Karyotype
  • Ultrasound
  • Ventricular septal defect

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Reproductive Medicine
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology


Dive into the research topics of 'Characterization and natural history of ventricular septal defects in the fetus'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this