Candidemia in Intensive Care Unit: A nationwide prospective observational survey (GISIA-3 study) and review of the European literature from 2000 through 2013

M. T. Montagna, G. Lovero, E. Borghi, G. Amato, S. Andreoni, L. Campion, G. Lo Cascio, G. Lombardi, F. Luzzaro, E. Manso, M. Mussap, P. Pecile, S. Perin, E. Tangorra, M. Tronci, R. Iatta, G. Morace

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


BACKGROUND: Candida bloodstream infections (BSI) represent an important problem in Intensive Care Units (ICUs). The epidemiology of candidemia is changing with an increase in the proportion of Candida (C.) non-albicans. OBJECTIVES: An Italian 2-year observational survey on ICU was conducted to evaluate the species distribution and possible differences between BSI caused by C. albicans and C. non-albicans. For comparative purposes, we performed a European literature-based review to evaluate distribution and frequency of Candida spp. causing ICU candidemia, during the period 2000-2013. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This laboratorybased survey involved 15 microbiology centers (GISIA-3 study). All candidemia episodes in adult patients were considered. Data were prospectively collected from 2007 to 2008. PubMed was searched for peer-reviewed articles. RESULTS: In total, 462 candidemia episodes were collected. C. albicans accounted for 49.4% of the isolates, followed by C. parapsilosis (26.2%) and C. glabrata (10.4%). Mortality was higher in patients with C. non-albicans than C. albicans (47.3% vs. 32.4 %, p > 0.05). Among risk factors, parenteral nutrition was more common (p = 0.02) in non-albicans candidemia, while surgery was more frequent (p = 0.02) in C. albicans candidemia. Twenty-four relevant articles were identified. C. albicans was the predominant species in almost all studies (range 37.9% -76.3%). C. glabrata was commonly isolated in the German-speaking countries, France, UK and North Europe; C. parapsilosis in Turkey, Greece and Spain. CONCLUSIONS: Although C. non-albicans BSI is increasing, our study shows that C. albicans is still the predominant species in ICU candidemia. There are differences in the epidemiology of Candida BSI among European countries, with a prevalence of C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis in Northern and Southern countries, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)661-674
Number of pages14
JournalEuropean Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • Candida spp
  • Candidemia
  • Intensive Care Unit
  • Literature review
  • Yeast infections

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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