Brain correlates of spike and wave discharges in GLUT1 deficiency syndrome

Anna Elisabetta Vaudano, Sara Olivotto, Andrea Ruggieri, Giuliana Gessaroli, Valentina De Giorgis, Antonia Parmeggiani, Pierangelo Veggiotti, Stefano Meletti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


PURPOSE: To provide imaging biomarkers of generalized spike-and-wave discharges (GSWD) in patients with GLUT1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1DS).

METHODS: Eighteen GLUT1DS patients with pathogenetic mutation in SLC2A1 gene were studied by means of Video-EEG simultaneously recorded with functional MRI (VideoEEG-fMRI). A control group of sex and age-matched patients affected by Genetic Generalized Epilepsy (GGE) with GSWD were investigated with the same protocol. Within and between groups comparison was performed as appropriated. For GLUT1DS, correlations analyses between the contrast of interest and the main clinical measurements were provided.

RESULTS: EEG during fMRI revealed interictal GSWD in 10 GLUT1DS patients. Group-level analysis showed BOLD signal increases at the premotor cortex and putamen. With respect to GGE, GLUT1DS patients demonstrated increased neuronal activity in the putamen, precuneus, cingulate cortex, SMA and paracentral lobule. Whole-brain correlation analyses disclosed a linear relationship between the GSWD-related BOLD changes and the levels of glycorrhachia at diagnosis over the sensory-motor cortex and superior parietal lobuli.

CONCLUSION: The BOLD dynamics related to GSWD in GLUT1DS are substantially different from typical GGE showing the former an increased activity in the premotor-striatal network and a decrease in the thalamus. The revealed hemodynamic maps might represent imaging biomarkers of GLUT1DS, being potentially useful for a precocious diagnosis of this genetic disorder.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)446-454
Number of pages9
JournalNeuroImage: Clinical
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Basal Ganglia
  • Biomarkers
  • Carbohydrate Metabolism, Inborn Errors
  • Cerebral Cortex
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Electroencephalography
  • Epilepsy, Generalized
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Monosaccharide Transport Proteins
  • Young Adult
  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't


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