Association between urinary bisphenol A concentrations and semen quality: A meta-analytic study

Chiara Castellini, Mario Muselli, Antonio Parisi, Maria Totaro, Daniele Tienforti, Giuliana Cordeschi, Marco Giorgio Baroni, Mauro Maccarrone, Stefano Necozione, Sandro Francavilla, Arcangelo Barbonetti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Although preclinical research has revealed disrupting effects on male reproductive functions of bisphenol A (BPA), as yet clinical studies have led to inconsistent results. The present meta‑analysis aims to establish the existence and the extent of the association between BPA exposure and semen quality. A thorough search of PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases was carried out. Only studies reporting data from multivariable linear regression analyses (β-coefficients with 95% CI), assessing the association between urinary levels of BPA and standard semen parameters were included. Nine studies provided information about an overall sample of 2,399 men. Only the negative association between urinary BPA levels and sperm motility reached statistical significance (pooled β-coefficient = -0.82; 95% CI: −1.51 to −0.12, p = 0.02; Pfor heterogeneity = 0.1, I2 = 42.9%). Yet, such a significance was lost after data adjustment for publication bias, as well as at the sensitivity analysis, when each of the two studies that contributed most to the overall estimate was excluded. In conclusion, the overall estimates of data produced by clinical studies point to a clinically negligible, if any, association between urinary BPA concentrations and semen quality. Further studies in workers at high risk of occupational exposure are warranted to corroborate the herein revealed weak correlation with a worse sperm motility.

Original languageEnglish
Article number114896
JournalBiochemical Pharmacology
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2022


  • Endocrine disruptors
  • Meta-analysis
  • Pollution
  • Polycarbonate plastics
  • Sperm motility
  • Spermatozoa

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Pharmacology


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