Angiogenesis entails new vessel formation from preexisting vessels. It follows vasculogenesis during embryo development. In post-natal life, it occurs both in physiological conditions (wound repair and cyclically in the female genital system) and pathological conditions such as tumors. Several sequential steps are involved, including basement membrane degradation by proteolytic enzymes secreted by the endothelial cells, chemotaxis toward the stimulus and proliferation of these cells, canalization, branching and formation of vascular loops, stabilization and functional maturation of neovessels following perivascular apposition of pericytes and smooth muscle cells, and neosynthesis of basement membrane constituents. Tumor angiogenesis is regulated by several factors, mainly growth factors for the endothelial cells secreted by both the tumor and host inflammatory cells, and mobilized from extracellular matrix stores by proteases secreted by tumor cells. Regulatory factors also include the extracellular matrix components and endothelial cell integrins, hypoxia, oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Angiogenesis is mandatory to the process of tumor progression (growth, invasion and metastasis), since it conveys oxygen and metabolites, whereas endothelial cells secrete growth factors for tumor cells and a variety of proteinases which facilitate invasion and increase opportunities for tumor cells to enter the circulation. We present our results concerning the relationship between angiogenesis and progression in patients with melanoma, multiple myeloma, B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and mycosis fungoids. Lastly, it is becoming increasingly evident that agents interfering with blood vessel formation also interfere with tumor progression. These include antagonists of angiogenic growth factors, angiogenic receptors, endothelial cell integrins, and proteolytic enzymes, as well as non-specific toxic agents for vessels and low-dose chemotherapeutic agents. Their recent applications in preclinical models and in neoplastic patients are reviewed.
|Translated title of the contribution||Angiogenesis and anti-angiogenesis in human neoplasms: Recent developments and therapeutic prospects|
|Number of pages||13|
|Journal||Annali Italiani di Medicina Interna|
|Publication status||Published - 2000|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine